- July 17, 2023
- Posted by: Igbaji Chinwendu
- Category: Project Writing Guide
Basic vs Applied Research – Meaning, 7 Components And The Relationship Between Applied And Basic Research
- 1 Basic vs Applied Research – Meaning, 7 Components And The Relationship Between Applied And Basic Research
- 1.1 What is Basic Research?
- 1.2 What are the components of basic research?
- 1.3 What is an Applied Research?
What is Basic Research?
Often regarded as pure or fundamental research, this is a form of research conducted to add to or increase the existing body of knowledge in a particular field without any direct practical applications or goals. Additionally, it can be regarded as a category of scientific research conducted to advance scientific hypotheses for better comprehension and forecasting of natural or other events.
In other words, basic research is often carried out by researchers who are interested in increasing scientific knowledge for their own sake. Therefore, it is conducted as a result of curiosity and a desire to understand the underlying principles and mechanisms of natural events or social behaviors.
What are the components of basic research?
The core components of basic research include;
A research question is a statement which expresses the core problem or issue which the researcher will evaluate during the research. Thus, the research question directs the entire research process, from the initial literature review to the final interpretation of the findings.
Additionally, the research question defines the scope and purpose of the study by outlining the specific phenomena or variables that the researcher intends to investigate, as well as providing a clear direction for the research design, data collection, and analysis.
A well-crafted research question should be focused, clear, concise, and significant, addressing a knowledge gap or a theoretical or practical issue within a specific field of study.
In basic research, a hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon not adequately explained by existing scientific theories or knowledge. It is a tentative statement or assumption that needs to be tested through experimentation.
The hypothesis is usually based on observations or prior knowledge and serves as a jumping-off point for further investigation. Creating a hypothesis necessitates creativity, intuition, and critical thinking abilities. Scientists or researchers must first identify a phenomenon to investigate, then collect relevant data and propose a testable explanation that can be tested through experimentation.
Experimentation is a critical element in the scientific method in fundamental research. It entails planning and testing the hypothesis put out in the preceding stage. The studies are meticulously planned to isolate the variable under test and regulate any other element that might affect the outcomes.
For other scientists or researchers to be able to repeat the experiment and produce comparable results, the experimental design must be rigorous and repeatable. The experiment must also be carried out under controlled circumstances, which calls for identical conditions to be applied to the experimental and control groups except for the studied variable.
The information obtained during data collection is needed to evaluate the hypothesis and make judgments. Depending on the research objective and the phenomenon’s characteristics, scientists or researchers employ a range of data collection approaches.
In other words, scientists employ various techniques to gather data during experiments, such as observing how volunteers react to different stimuli or keeping track of how variables change over time. This may entail gathering and analyzing data using sensors, recorders, or other specialized tools.
Data must first be collected to reach significant findings from a scientific study’s data analysis. In the analysis phase, the data are explored, interpreted, and inferences are drawn using various statistical tools and procedures. Examples of statistical procedures or techniques used in this section include; hypothesis testing, data visualization, thematic analysis, etc.
The approaches used for data analysis might combine statistical and qualitative methodologies depending on the study question, the type of data gathered, and other considerations.
A research study’s findings are the results of data analysis that answer the research question and support or reject the hypothesis. To facilitate interpretation and understanding by the intended audience, the findings are presented clearly and concisely, using tables, graphs, charts, or narratives.
Each result should be linked to the research question and the corresponding data analysis method, and the findings should be organized logically.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
As its name implies, this is the final section of basic research. It summarizes the research findings and proposes recommendations for further research and study based on the research questions and data analysis results.
What is an Applied Research?
Applied research is a subset of academic research that aims to solve practical problems or provide solutions to specific issues in real-world settings. In other words, the goal of applied research is to turn scientific knowledge into practical applications that benefit society, industry, and government.
Applied research, as opposed to basic research, which is concerned with advancing fundamental knowledge and understanding in a specific field, addresses specific questions and problems in a specific context. Applied research is frequently interdisciplinary to develop practical solutions to complex problems, drawing on theories, concepts, and methods from multiple fields.
Collaboration between researchers and practitioners, such as engineers, medical professionals, social workers, and policymakers, is also a feature. The findings of applied research should be actionable and relevant to the needs of stakeholders such as consumers, patients, employees, or citizens.
Generally, applied research is critical for solving practical problems and improving the quality of life for individuals and communities. It combines scientific rigour with practical relevance, bridging the gap between theory and practice and translating research findings into tangible societal benefits.
What is the relationship between applied and basic research?
The core answer in this section is the modes or methods in which basic and applied research are linked or connected. These ways include:
They are both complementary:
Basic and applied research are frequently described as complementary because they work together to advance scientific knowledge and drive innovation. The theoretical underpinnings of science are provided by basic research, which seeks to understand the fundamental principles and mechanisms that govern natural phenomena.
This type of research typically entails exploring the unknown and generating new knowledge without regard for a specific practical application. Applied research, on the other hand, applies basic research findings to solve practical problems or develop new technologies.
This type of research is more goal-oriented and focuses on real-world problems. Applied research applies basic research findings and theories to specific situations. Simply put, basic and applied research frequently inform and support one another.
Applied research could not develop practical solutions without the theoretical foundation provided by basic research. If applied research is not conducted, basic research may lack the relevance and practical applications required to attract funding and support. Furthermore, applied research can occasionally generate new questions and discoveries that spark further basic research.
They both contribute to bigger causes:
Basic research frequently results in discovering new phenomena, theories, and technologies with far-reaching and long-term implications. The insights gained from basic research can be used to lay the groundwork for answering fundamental questions about the world and comprehending complex systems.
Breakthrough discoveries and paradigm shifts in our understanding of the world can lead to significant advancements in medicine, physics, engineering, and computer science. Applied research, on the other hand, frequently results in more immediate and tangible societal benefits.
Applied research can develop new products, processes, and services that directly impact people’s lives by focusing on practical applications. Therefore, although both factors contribute to different causes, they are necessary for furthering scientific understanding and improving people’s quality of life.
Basic research lays the groundwork for breakthrough discoveries and new fields of study, whereas applied research turns that knowledge into practical solutions to specific problems and challenges. Basic and applied research work to drive scientific progress and help make the world a better place.
They both have stipulated timeframes:
Basic research, which aims to push the boundaries of knowledge and deepen our understanding of a specific field or phenomenon, typically takes longer to complete than applied research. In other words, basic research frequently entails a more exploratory and iterative inquiry process.
Researchers may need multiple experiments, observations, and analyses to develop and test new theories and hypotheses. This time-consuming and resource-intensive process necessitates meticulous planning, design, and execution.
Applied research, on the other hand, is frequently conducted in response to immediate needs and goals, such as improving a specific product or service, addressing a public health crisis, or solving a specific problem.
Because applied research has a more practical and problem-solving orientation, it is often carried out with a more focused and targeted approach to deliver tangible results in a shorter time frame. Although there are differences in the time frames of both research forms, they are conducted within stipulated or specific timeframes.